Philippine Pantheons

Posted by Paolo Chikiamco On July - 22 - 2010

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Note: This is a list I’ve generated as a companion to–and aid for–the Alternative Alamat anthology (which closes for submissions on 30 August 2010). It does not claim to be a comprehensive list–that being said, as far as my research can determine, this is the most comprehensive list of Philippine gods and goddesses on the Internet, with 344 individual entries. Of course, given that the Ifugao alone seem to have had deities in the hundreds, that means there is still a lot of room for expansion.

Still, it’s a good place to start, and I hope that it opens the eyes of writers to the vast potential for stories represented by our myths and legends. Many of the entries are merely names and a domain, but as Michael Chabon found himself inspired by maps “and the romantic blank of unexplored territory”, and names that were like magic spells, calling into being that which had previously not existed, so too do I hope you glean inspiration even from the sparest of entries. The West has its Thors, its Aphrodites… maybe it’s time for our own deities to shine.

How to Help:

  • Spread the Word: … because this list won’t do anyone any good if no one knows it’s here.
  • Information: If you think I’ve missed a god or goddess, please send me an email at rocketkapre[at]gmail.com, and tell me your source. I’ll verify it as best I can, then add it to the list if warranted.
  • Art: If you’ve drawn or seen artwork of a deity online, post a link in the comments and I’ll add them to the proper entry.
  • Stories: If you find a story which uses one or more of these deities as characters, let me know link in the comments and I’ll add them to the proper entry.

Disclaimers:

  • I’m no mythology expert, just an enthusiast.
  • While I’ve cited my sources, barring my future possession of a time machine, there is no real way I can guarantee the accuracy of all the entries. There is also likely to be an overlap/repetition – deities who are worshipped by more than one group, under the same or a different name.
  • Some of my sources listed deities by geographic area (Benguet) rather than by cultural group (Kankana-ey, Ibaloy) so some of the attributions are more arbitrary or more general than I’d like, and in some cases there was guess work involved in matching gods/names to the appropriate groups, as some contiguous groups shared some deities, but not others.
  • I didn’t include certain entities because I wasn’t sure if they were gods, singular spirits, or a name for a kind of spirit. This includes some “house gods” such as Dadagunan hu Suguy. Other entities, like the Bakunawa, made it to the list because they were singular creatures powerful enough to contend with gods.

A

  • Abal – Ilongot – He and his brother Cain are the creators and guardian lords of all things. In the beginning, Cain and Abal lived together in the sky; but they had a quarrel and separated, as Abal wanted to live on earth where he could herd his animals. Abal was the one who created the lowlanders, who have the use of his carabaos and other animals. (Wikipedia)
  • Abba – Bisayan – The supreme god of the Visayans according to Rajah Kolambu of Mazaua, during his conversation with Ferdinand Magellan.  Abba is the Visayan name for Bathala of the Tagalogs. (Wikipedia)
  • Abog – Bagobo – God known as the “Helper of Hunters”. (Outline of Philippine Mythology; F. Landa Jocano; 1969) Here’s a link to an image/interpretation of Abog, by John Laurence Patulan.
  • Abra – Northern Luzon – “Father of Cabuyaran”, God of Weather (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions; Anvil Publishing)
  • Abyang Durunuun – Bisayan – Goddess of charms, assisted Sumpoy and Magyan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Adika-ila – Kankana-ey – Creator of the universe. (Benguet Culture)
  • Agew – Kankana-ey – Sun deity. One of the seven secondary gods. (Gold from the gods : traditional small-scale miners in the Philippines / by Evelyn J. Caballero.)
  • Agtayabun – Bukidnon – His name means advisor or peace maker.In the Bukindon creation myth, he was the one who held both Diwat na Magbabaya and Dadanhayan ha Sugay aloft, cooling their heads by continually flapping his wings. (The Soul Book; Demetrio, Francisco, Gilda cordero-Fernando, Fernando N. Zialcita, Roberto B. Feleo; Quezon City: GCF Books, 1991) Here’s a link to an image/interpretation of Agtayabun, by John Laurence Patulan.
  • Akasi – Zambales – God of Health and Sickness. Almost as powerful as Malayari. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Aldao – Bicol – son of Paros/Dagat, made of gold, had a jolly disposition (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Alipugpug – Isneg – A good harvest is portended by the rising of a little whirlwind from the burned field. This, it is said, is the spirit of Alipugpug. (Wikipedia)
  • Alunsina – Sulod/Panay – Goddess of the Golden Dawn (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions) First Goddess, became a mortal. (The Warrior Dance and Other Classic Philippine Sky Tales; Tahanan Books) (Wikipedia)
  • Alupundan – Isneg – Causes the reapers’ toes to get sore all over and swell. (Wikipedia)
  • Amanikable – Tagalog – God of the Sea. Has sworn vengeance against mankind because he was spurned by a human woman, Maganda. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia) In the Soul Book, he is listed as the anito of Hunters. (The Soul Book)
  • Amansinaya – Tagalog – anito of fishermen to whom they offer the first catch. (The Soul Book)
  • Amihan – Tagalog – The North Wind, who often takes the form of a large bird. In some creation myths, it is the one who assisted Bathala and Amansinaya in creating the earth. Amihan was responsible for splitting the bamboo from which Malakas and Maganda came from (the first humans on earth) (Wikipedia)
  • Amas – Agta – One of the four manifestations of the “great creator” who rules the world. Amas moves people to pity, love, unity, and peace of heart. (Wikipedia)
  • Ambahing – Ifugao – One of the Gods, takes semen from the womb of women and carries it off in his hip-bag  (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Amduyan – Ibaloy – One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA – National Commission for Culture and the Arts) (A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Ampuor Nagsalad- Palawan – The Master who wove the world and created several kinds of humanity, hence he is also called Nagsalad, the Weaver. He is the supreme deity in a system of religious thought that can be qualified as “theist” and “animist.” He is a protective watching presence, always invisible to tawbanar or the real people. In the verticality of the universe, andunawan represents his abode, while people live on dunya or earth. (Wikipedia)
  • Ampu at Paray – Palawan – The Master of Rice. (Wikipedia)
  • Ampual – Ifugao – Of the Fourth Skyworld, Ampual is the god who bestowed animals and plants on the people, and who controls the transplanting of rice. He is one of those gods who expects gifts in return for his blessings. (Wikipedia)
  • Anagolay – Tagalog – Goddess of Lost Things. Daughter of Ikapati and Mapulon, wife of Dumakulem, mother of Apolake and Dian Masalanta. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Angoro – Batak – Lives in basad, a place beyond this world where the souls of the dead go, and it is there that they come to know whether they are to proceed to lampanag (heaven) or will be cast into depths of the basad, where fire and boiling water await them. (Wikipedia)
  • Angtan – Ibaloy -One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)(A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Anlabban – Isneg – The spirit who looks after the general welfare of the people and is recognized as the special protector of hunters. (Wikipedia)
  • Angban – Kankana-ey / Ibaloy – Goddess of Water, Wells, Springs and Creeks. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Anianihan – Northern Luzon – God of Harvest (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Anit or Anitan – Manobo – Guardian of the Thunderbolt. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Anitun Tabu – Tagalog – Goddess of wind and rain. Said to be fickle. Daughter of Idianale and Dumangan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Aniton Tauo – Zambales – Goddess of wind and rain. Originally superior to other deities, but was reduced in rank by Malayari as punishment for her hubris. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Aninitud Chalom – Ifugao/Mayoyaos – the deity of the underworld or the deity of earthquakes. (Theocultura)
  • Apadel / Kalagang – Tinggian/Tinguian/Itneg – A deity who is known to be the guardian and dweller of the spirit-stones called pinaing, which play an important role in the spiritual world of the Tinguian. Of various sizes and shapes, the pinaing are usually found in spots marked out as hallowed ground, often under old trees, and are deemed to be the protectors of such places and of the creatures who live in the forests. (Wikipedia)
  • Apinan – Ibaloy – (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Apo Oraren – Mangyan – the Old One, omnipotent (The World of the Spirits)
  • Apochius / Chius - Ibaloy – Creator of Man. (A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Apolake – Tagalog – God of the Sun and Patron of Warriors. Son of Anagolay and Dumakulem, brother of Dian Masalanta. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia – Apolaki)
  • Arurin – Isneg – Arurin sees to it that the harvest is bad, if the Isneg farmers fail to give Arurin her share. (Wikipedia)
  • Aswang – Bicol – The evil god who always tries to steal the sacred fire of Mount Mayon from his brother, Gugurang. Addressed sometimes as Asuang, he dwells mainly inside Mount Malinao. He causes people to suffer misfortune and tempts them to commit sin. (Wikipedia)

B

  • Bagatulayan – Tinggian/Tinguian/Itneg – The Supreme Being and Creator of the world. He lives in and rules the celestial realm, directing its activities. (Wikipedia)
  • Bago – Isneg – The spirit of the forest. (Wikipedia)
  • Bai sa Langit Romiyagambay Olan – Maranao – Queen of the sky, as bright as the moon. (The World of the Spirits)
  • Baitpandi – Bagobo – Goddess who taught the women to weave, and who now presides over the looms and the weavers. Patron of Weavers. (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao) (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Bakunawa- Bicol – A gigantic sea serpent deity who was thought to be the cause of eclipses. As the devourer of the sun and the moon, this serpent became an adversary to Haliya. (Wikipedia)
  • Balikongkong – Kankana-ey – One of the seven secondary gods. (Gold from the gods : traditional small-scale miners in the Philippines / by Evelyn J. Caballero.)
  • Balitok / Baditok – Ibaloy – God of Gold and Mines, owner of the minerals beneath the earth. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Balungbunganin – Batak – Spirit of the Almaciga Trees. (Wikipedia)
  • Bangan – Bontok/Kankana-ey – Goddess of Romance. Daughter of Lumauwig and Bugan, sister of Obban. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Bangan – Ibaloy – A Goddess of Pigs. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Bangun bangun – Sulod/Panay – God of Universal Time (regulated the movements of the cosmos). (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Barangaw – Bisayan – God of the Rainbow. (Wikipedia)
  • Batakagan – Kankana-ey – Morning Star deity. One of the seven secondary gods. (Gold from the gods : traditional small-scale miners in the Philippines / by Evelyn J. Caballero.)
  • Bathala / Bathala Maykapal/ Bathala Lumikha – Tagalog – Supreme deity of the Tagalogs, resides in Kaluwalhatian, possibly the most well known of the Filipino deities. Pierced one of the sun’s eyes with a bolo so its heat would be more bearable, and then pushed the now-cooler sky up and away from the earth. (The Soul Book)
  • Batungbayanin – Batak – Spirit of the Mountains. (Wikipedia)
  • Bentawan- Ibaloy – Ibaloy/Kanaka-ey – God of Fire. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Binangewan – Agta – One of the four manifestations of the “great creator” who rules the world. Binangewan is responsible for change, sickness, and death. (Wikipedia)
  • Binayi – Mangyan – Owner of a garden where all spirits rest. (Wikipedia)
  • Binayo – Mangyan – Is a sacred female spirit, caretaker of the rice spirits or the kalag paray. She is married to Bulungabon. The kalag paray must be appeased, to ensure a bountiful harvest. (Wikipedia)
  • Bitoon – Bicol – Daughter of Paros/Dagat, made of pure silver (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Blanga – T’boli – God of Stones and Rocks. (Wikipedia)
  • Bolalayas – Kalinga – the Field-Wrecker (The World of the Spirits)
  • Bolol – Ibaloy – Spokesperson of Mengos-oschong / Kabuniyan. (A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Bong Libun – T’boli – Married to her brother Sfedat, however their marriage did not produce any progeny. Sfedat ask her to kill him, and when she did as she has told, the corpse of Sfedat becomes the land. When her brother Dwata reneges on their bargain, whereby he was to give one of his sons to her in marriage,Bong Libun marries her youngest brother Datu Bnoling. With him she has seven sons, who become scourges of the earth: Fun Knkel, Fun Daskulo, Fun Lkef, Fun Kumuga, Fun Blekes, Fun Lalang. (Wikipedia)
  • Buan – Kankana-ey – Moon deity. One of the seven secondary gods. (Gold from the gods : traditional small-scale miners in the Philippines / by Evelyn J. Caballero.)
  • Bugan – Ibaloy – Goddess of Cereal, Palay, Corn and Millet. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Bulalakaw – Bisayan – Bird God, bringer of illness. (Wikipedia)
  • Bulalakaw – Bukidnon – The spirit who watches the rivers and takes care of the fishermen’s catch. (Wikipedia)
  • Bulan – Bicol – son of Paros/Dagat, made of copper, weak (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Bulan – Northern Luzon – God of Peace and Calm (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Bulon La Mogoaw – T’boli – The moon goddess and supreme goddess, wife of Kadaw La Sambad. (Wikipedia)
  • Bulul – Ifugao – the genius of the rice plant (The World of the Spirits)
  • Bulungabon – Mangyan – The spirit aided by 12 fierce dogs. Erring souls are chased by these dogs and eventually drowned in a caldron of boiling water. He is Binayo’s husband. (Wikipedia)
  • Bumigi – Ifugao – In charge of worms, one of the eleven beings who stamp out rice pests. (Wikipedia)
  • Bunag – Gaddang – God of the Earth. (Wikipedia)
  • Burigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan – Bisayan – Goddess of Greed. (Wikipedia)
  • Busao – Bukidnon – God of Calamity. The deity most feared by the Bukidnon. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)

C

  • Cain – Ilongot – Brother of Abal. Created all the mountain people, including the Ilongots. He gave them their customs, which they have followed throughout the centuries. He was a killer and a head-hunter. Abal is stronger and more powerful than Cain. (Wikipedia)
  • Caburayan – Northern Luzon – Goddess of Healing, daughter of Lady Makiling (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Chacha (Ejar) – Bontok – God and Warrior (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Cumucul – T’boli – The eldest son of Kadaw La Sambad, given a cohort of fire, a tok (sword), shield, and the magical horse Kaunting, who can be as small as a mouse when not being ridden and who can be kept in a box. Cumucul is married to Boi Kabil. (Wikipedia)

D

  • Dadanhayan ha Sugay – Bukidnon – The Lord From Whom Permission is Asked. Had a human body but ten heads, which drooled thick saliva. (The Soul Book)
  • Daga – Bicol – son of Paros/Dagat, made of rock, strong – succeeded Paros as God of the wind. (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Dagat – Bicol – The Sea, wife of Paros, daughter of Languit (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Dagau - Manobo – Lives with a python at the pillars of the world, and causes earthquakes by ordering the python to writhe around the pillars. (A Structural Study of Bagobo Myths and Rites)
  • Dagdagamiyan - Isneg – A female spirit who causes sickness in children for playing in places where the harvest is being done. (Wikipedia)
  • Dagingon – Bukidnon – worshipped in an elaborated celebration complete with songs and dances which will last for nine nights during planting and after harvest seasons. (Wikipedia)
  • Dal’lang – Bisayan – The goddess of beauty that bestows her gift of beauty to her followers. (Wikipedia)
  • Dalikamata – Bisayan – The many-eyed goddess who cures eye illnesses. (Wikipedia)
  • Damulag / Damolag – Zambales – God responsible for preventing the flowers of the rice plants from blowing away in a hurricane. Brother of Kalasakas, Kalasokus and Dumagan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (The Soul Book)
  • Darayonon – Panay – God of Darkness (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Darupaypay - Isneg – Devours the palay stored in the hut before it is transferred to the granary. (Wikipedia)
  • Dasal – Gaddang – To whom the epic warriors Biwag and Malana prayed for strength and courage before going off to their final battle. (Wikipedia)
  • Daungen / Duangen – Ibaloy – One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA) (A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Delan – Ilongot – God of the Moon (or its personification).  Usually he and Elag are congenial and take turns giving light; but sometimes they quarrel and Elag covers Delan with a huge winnowing biga-o (basket). Thus we have the different phases of the moon. (Wikipedia)
  • Dian Masalanta – Tagalog – Goddess of Lovers. Daughter of Anagolay and Dumakulem, sister of Apolake. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Diwat na Magbabaya – Bukidnon – A pure god who “wills all things”. He had the form of a man, and was a supreme planner. (The Soul Book)
  • Diwata – Batak – provides for the needs of men and women, and gives out rewards for good deeds. Sanbay is a ritual in honor of Diwata. (Wikipedia)
  • Diwata – Palawan – A benevolent and protective deity whoresides in lalangaw, the median space. He is the mediator between humans and Ampu. (Wikipedia)
  • Diwata-sa-langit – Subanun – God of Heaven, the most powerful God. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Domalong-dong – Bukidnon – God of the North Wind. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Dumagid – Benguet – Father of Ovug
  • Dumakulem – Tagalog – hunter and guardian of mountains. Son of Dumagan and Idianale. Husband of Anagolay, father of Apolake and Dian Masalanta. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Dumagan – Zambales – God of Good Harvest. Brother of Kalasakas, Kalasokus and Damulag. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Dumangan – Tagalog – God of the Good Harvest. Husband of Idianale, father of Dumakulem and Anitun Tabu. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (in Wikipedia – Dimangan)
  • Dwata – T’boli – The third son of Kadaw La Sambad, married to two of his sisters, Sedek We and Hyu We. His request for one of the powers granted Cumucul is refused. Thus, he leaves the sky with his wives and seven children from Hyu We (Litik, Blanga, Teme Lus, Tdolok, Ginton, Lmugot Mangay, and Fun Bulol) and six from Sedek We. For a place to stay, he asks Bong Libun for the land that was once Sfedat’s body. Bong Libun agrees on the condition that she marries one of his sons. Dwata spreads the land, and plants the trees and other vegetation; the result is the earth. The first people are created after Dwata breathes life into the clay figurines made by Hyu We and Sedek We. However Dwata does not fulfill his side of the bargain with Bong Libun, because his sons will not have her as wife. (Wikipedia)

E

  • Elag – Ilongot – God of the Sun (or its personification). He has a great, magnificent house in Gacay. When he gets tired of giving light and goes into his house, the day turns to night. (Wikipedia)

F

  • Fon Batoo – Bilaan – Spirit of Rocks and Stones. (Wikipedia)
  • Fon Eel – Bilaan – Spirit of the Water. (Wikipedia)
  • Fon Kayoo – Bilaan – Spirit of the Trees. (Wikipedia)
  • Fun Blekes – T’boli – God of Skin Diseases. (Wikipedia)
  • Fun Bulol – T’boli – God of Mountains. (Wikipedia)
  • Fun Daskulo – T’boli – God of Head Diseases. (Wikipedia)
  • Fun Knkel – T’boli – God of Fever. (Wikipedia)
  • Fun Kumuga – T’boli – God of Eye Afflictions. (Wikipedia)
  • Fun Lalang – T’boli – God of Baldness. (Wikipedia)
  • Fun Lkef – T’boli – God of Colds. (Wikipedia)

G

  • Galang Kaluluwa – Tagalog – The winged god, present in some creation myths, who loves to travel. He is identified as a close friend of Bathala. (Wikipedia)
  • Gatan – Ibaloy – God of the Fields. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Gemang – Ilongot – The guardian of wild beasts. When a party of men is starting on a hunt, they build a fire, take hold of the dogs and the weapons and pass them one by one through the smoke. The last dog to be passed through the smoke is the leader of the pack. After taking it out of the smoke, the owner spits on its face, and rubs the saliva down its back and sides. Meanwhile, he has been talking and shouting to Gemang, saying: “Do not let our dogs get sick. You must give us one of your animals. Do not take the form of a wild beast so that the dogs chase you by mistake. If you will let the dogs catch one beast, then we will give you to eat and drink and likewise your wife.” (Wikipedia)
  • Ginton – T’boli – God of Metallurgy. (Wikipedia)
  • Ginuudan – Isneg – Comes to measure the containers of palay, and causes them to dwindle. (Wikipedia)
  • Gugurang – Bicol – The supreme god who dwells inside of Mount Mayon, where he guards and protects the sacred fire which Aswang, his brother, was trying to steal. Whenever people would disobey his orders and commit sins, he would cause lava to burst from Mount Mayon as a sign of warning for people to mend their foul ways. Ancient Bikolanos had a rite performed for him called Atang. (Wikipedia)
  • Gumegenal – Manobo (the Ulahingan) – Ruler of the Region of the Dead
  • Gutugutumakkan – Agta – Supreme Being. (Wikipedia)

H

  • Haik – Tagalog – He was the God of the Sea in some source materials. (Wikipedia)
  • Haliya – Bicol – The Masked Goddess of the Moon and the archenemy of Bakunawa. Her cult was composed primarily of women. There was also a ritual dance named after her as it was performed as a counter-measure against Bakunawa. (Wikipedia)
  • Halmista – Bisayan – He is the Visayan God of Magic, a former priest (or babaylan) who turned into a god. (Wikipedia)
  • Hanan – Tagalog – Goddess of the Morning. Daughter of Bathala and a human woman who died during childbirth. Sister of Mayari and Tala. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Hukloban – Tagalog – agent of Sitan with shapeshifting powers. Could destroy or heal with a wave of her hand. Possibly the most powerful agent of Sitan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia – Hukluban)

I

  • Ibaga – Ibaloy – Goddess of Messengers, who looks after travelers and passengers as well. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Ibabasag – Bukidnon – Patroness of Pregnant Women, agent of Magbabaya. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Ibabasok – Bukidnon – Watches over the crops. (Wikipedia)
  • Ibu – Manobo – Queen of the Afterworld, Goddess of the Dead. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) She lives at the pillars of the world. (The Soul Book)
  • Idianale – Tagalog – Goddess of Labor and Good Deeds. Married to Dumangan, mother of Dumakulem and Anitun Tabu. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (On Wikipedia – Idiyanale)
  • Ikapati – Tagalog – Goddess of Cultivated Land and the Health of Herds. Benevolent, understanding and kind. Married to Mapulon, mother of Anagolay. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (inWikipedia – Lakapati) Goddess of Fertility and guardian anito of agriculture. (The Soul Book)
  • Inaiyau – Manobo – Manipulator of the Wind and Storms, wielder of thunder and lightning. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Inaginid – Bisayan – invoked for success in battle and plunder. (Wikipedia)
  • Inargay – Isneg – Kills people during harvest time. When inapugan, a ritual plant, is offered to Inargay, the following prayer is recited by the Isneg farmer: “Iapugko iyaw Inargay ta dinaami patpatay” (I offer this betel to you, Inargay, so that you may not kill us). (Wikipedia)
  • Intumbangol / Tumpaa Nanapiyaw – Bukidnon – Watches the base of the earth night and day lest it crumble. (Wikipedia)
  • Ipamahandi – Bukidnon – Goddess of Accident. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)

K

  • Kabigat – Ibaloy – God of the Sky and the Underworld, of Thunder and Lightning. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Kabunian – Ba-go – Creator of the land, his children became the lightning
  • Kabunian – Ifugao – highest ranking deity. Dwells in the fifth and highest region of the universe. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Kaboniyan / Kabuniyan – Tinggian/Cordilleras -  The savior god who came down to earth to teach man religion, agriculture and headhunting. He is so huge that his spear is as tall as a tree and his head-ax as large as a house roof. (The World of the Spirits) Patron of the head hunters. (The Soul Book)
  • Kaboniyan – Kalinga – supreme god. (The World of the Spirits)
  • Kadaklan – Tinggian/Tinguian/Itneg – created the universe, lives in the sky. (The World of the Spirits) (Wikipedia)
  • Kadaw La Sambad – T’boli – The sun god and supreme god. Married to Bulon La Mogoaw, they reside in the seventh heaven. They beget seven sons and daughters who end up marrying each other. (Wikipedia)
  • Kakiadan – Manobo – Goddess of Rice. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Kalan – Ibaloy – One of the Gods of Animals and Plants. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Kalasakas – Zambales – God responsible for the early ripening of the rice stalks. Brother of Damulag, Kalasokus and Dumagan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Kalasokus – Zambales – God responsible for turning the grains of rice yellow and dry. Brother of Kalasakas, Damulag and Dumagan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Kan-Laon – Bisayan – The supreme god, worshiped by the Ancient Visayans who lived in the Negros Island, he dwells in Mount Kanlaon. Like Kaptan, he is an Ancient Visayans counterpart of Bathala). (Wikipedia)
  • Kaptan – Bisayan – Principal deity. Lived in Kahilwayan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Kasaraysarayan-sa-sulgan or Kasaray-sarayan-sa-silgan – Panay – God of the River (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions) or Lord of the Streams (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Ked-yem (Kedyem) – Bontok – God and Blacksmith (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Kedes – Agta – God of the Hunt. (Wikipedia)
  • Komiwa – Ifugao – One of the Gods, who stirs up semen in the womb so that conception is prevented  (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)

L

  • Ladlaw – Bisayan –  The God of the Sun and the second child of Lihangin ang Lidagat. (Wikipedia)
  • Lakambakod – Tagalog – The protector of the growing crops. (Wikipedia)
  • Lakambuwi – Tagalog – The Spanish called him “Abogado de la Garganta” (The Throat Advocate). He is referred as the god of gluttony, food and eating. (Wikipedia)
  • Lakan-Bakod – Tagalog – God of fruit who dwells in the plants people use as fences. (The Soul Book)
  • Lalahon – Bisayan – Goddess of fire, volcanoes and harvest. In ancient times, Ancient Visayans blamed her for sending armies of locusts to destroy their harvests. In response, theywould offer her gifts in order to please her. (Wikipedia)
  • Lampong – Ilongot – The dwarf shepherd of the wild animals. (Wikipedia)
  • Landusan – Isneg – Held responsible for some cases of extreme poverty. Those believed to be suffering from the machinations of this spirit are said to be malandusan (impoverished). (Wikipedia)
  • Languit – Bicol – Ruler of the Sky (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Laon – Bisayan – Creator God. Had a pet bird named Manaul. (The Soul Book)
  • Libtakan – Manobo – God of Sunrise, Sunset and Good Weather. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (The Soul Book)
  • Libulan – Bisayan – The Goddess of the Moon and the third child of Lihangin and Lidagat. (Wikipedia)
  • Lidagat – Bisayan – Became the Goddess of the Sea after Magwayen. She later married Lihangin and had four children. (Wikipedia)
  • Liddum – Ifugao – Mediator between the people and the gods. (Wikipedia)
  • Lihangin – Bisayan – The God of the Wind and the son of Kaptan. He later married Lidagat and had four children. (Wikipedia)
  • Likabutan – Bisayan – The God of World and the eldest child of Lihangin and Lidagat. (Wikipedia)
  • Limat – Gaddang – God of the Sea. (Wikipedia)
  • Linamin at Barat – Palawan – The Lady of the Monsoon Winds. (Wikipedia)
  • Linga – Tagalog – He was the god who was responsible for curing diseases, hence a deity of medicines. (Wikipedia)
  • Lingan – Ibaloy – One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA) (A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Lisuga – Bisayan -The deity from whom Silalak and Sibabay came from. She was the youngest child of Lihangin and Lidagat. (Wikipedia)
  • Litik – T’boli – God of Thunder. (Wikipedia)
  • Lmugot Mangay – T’boli – God of Life and Growing Things. (Wikipedia)
  • Loos Klagan – Bilaan – The most feared deity, uttering his name is considered a curse. (Note the completely opposite character of the T’boli deity of the same name) (Wikipedia)
  • Loos Klagan and La Fun – T’boli – the Divine Couple. To alleviate the damage done by the scourges (the sons of Bong Libun and Datu Bnoling) they assume the role of healers. (Wikipedia)
  • Lubay-Lubyok Hanginun si Mahuyokhuyokan – Panay – Goddess of the Evening Breeze (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions) (Wikipedia)
  • Lueve – Agta – One of the four manifestations of the “great creator” who rules the world. Lueve takes care of production and growth. (Wikipedia)
  • Lumabet / Lumabat - Bagobo – God of the Sky. (NCCA) Son of Tuglay and Tuglibong. Brother of Mebuyan, he ascended to heaven but she refused to go with him. He became a god when the Diwatas sliced open his stomach and removed his intestines. He could summon food on command, although he did not need to eat. (A Structural Study of Bagobo Myths and Rites)
  • Lumadab – Ifugao – Has the power to dry up the rice leaves, one of the eleven beings who stamp out rice pests. (Wikipedia)
  • Lumauwig – Bontok/Kankana-ey – Creator of All Things, God of the Sky. Husband of Bugan, father of Bangan and Obban. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Lumawig / Dumawig – Ibaloy – God of War. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Lumbong – Maranao – a beast bigger than the world, bearing a parasitic shrimp (or crab?). It holds up the world’s seven cushions/layers. (The World of the Spirits)
  • Luyong Baybay – Sulod/Panay – Goddess of tides, wife of Paigrab, mother of Magsanladung Biday. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) Wikipedia)
  • Luyong Kabig – Sulod/Panay – controlled the stream of snakes at the entrance of the Underworld. Sister of Luyong Baybay. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)

M

  • Macanduc and Ynaguinid – Bisayan – Gods of war/battle. (Wikipedia)
  • Magbabaya – Bukidnon – Father God (The World of the Spirits) (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Magbangal – Bukidnon – Planter God who turned into the constellation that signals the start of the planting season. (The Soul Book)
  • Magbaya – Bukidnon – God of the West Wind. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Magan-durunoon – Bisayan – God of Hidden Lakes (Outline of Philippine Mythology) [seems to be the  same deity referred to below, except for the gender difference]
  • Magdang Diri-inin – Panay – Goddess of Tinagong Dagat (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Maguimba – Batak – having been summoned by a powerful babaylan, he supplied all the necessities of Batak life, as well as all the cures for illness. He even had the power to bring the dead back to life. (Wikipedia)
  • Magwayen / Magwayen – Bisayan – The Goddess of the Sea who is believed to take the souls of the dead in Sulad. She had a daughter named Lidagat. (Wikipedia) The Goddess of the Winds of the Sea. Her body is covered with pearls and mother-of-pearl shells, and sea creatures shadow her from beneath as she moves. (The Soul Book)
  • Magyan – Bisayan – carried the souls of the dead to the infernal regions, in a boat called a balanday. Brother of Makaptan and Sumpoy. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Mahal na Makaako – Mangyan – The Supreme Being who gave life to all human beings merely by gazing at them. (Wikipedia)
  • Mah-nongan – Ifugao – Creator of all things. (Wikipedia)
  • Maiklum-sa-bag-idan or Maklium-sa-bagidan – Panay – God of Fire (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions) (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Maiklum-sa-tuan or Maklium-sa-twan- Panay – God of the Wide Plains (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions) (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia – Maklium sa Tiwan, God of Valleys and Plains.)
  • Maiklum-sa-tubig or Maklium-sa-tubig – God of the Azure Sea (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions) (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Makaboteng – Tinggian/Tinguian/Itneg – Name means “One who frightens”. A benevolent spirit who dwells in the natural surroundings, believed to be the guardian of the deer and the wild pigs. (Wikipedia) (The Soul Book)
  • Makagagahum – Western Visayas – Creator of all living things (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Makalidung – Manobo – The first great Manobo and founder of the world. He set it up on posts, and he lives at the center of the world with a python. (The Manobos of Mindanao)
  • Makaptan – Bisayan – God of Sickness, co-ruler of Kamariitan with Sidapa, his wife. Brother of Magyan and Sumpoy. Wished to make humans suffer because he had never partaken of any food or drink of the earth. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Makiling, Lady – Northern Luzon – Wife of Abra (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Malaki t’ohu A’waig – Bagobo – “hero of the head of the waters”. Cures sickness. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Malanduk – Bisayan – Invoked for success in battle and plunder. (Wikipedia)
  • Malaon / Makapatag – ? – One deity with two aspects. Malaon, the Ancient One, was female, mild, and understanding. Makapatag, the Leveller, was male, austere, and fearful. (The Soul Book)
  • Malayari – Zambales – highest ranking deity. Master of Life and Lord of Death. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Malimbung – Bagobo –  Goddess who made men crave for sexual satisfaction. (The Soul Book)
  • Mamiyo – Ifugao – Stretcher of Skeins, one of the twenty-three different deities preside over the art of weaving. (Wikipedia)
  • Manama – Gianges – Governor of the World. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Manama – Manuvu – The Good God, stole soil from the world of the Bad Good Ogassi, in order to create life on his own world. (Treasury of Stories)
  • Manamoan – Mandaya – Goddess associated with the earth, who presides over childbirth. (A Structural Study of Bagobo Myths and Rites)
  • Mandait – Manobo – The Spirit of Souls (Outline of Philippine Mythology) The Birth Deity (A Survey of the Material and Sociological Culture of the Manobo of Eastern Mindanao). [I suppose this could mean that this is the God who puts souls into newborns?]
  • Mandarangan and Darago – Bagobo – (I’m treating this husband and wife pair as a couple, because they’re always mentioned together). They look after the fortunes of the warriors, most notably the elite warrior class of the Magani, and in return demand the yearly sacrifice of a slave. They are supposed to dwell in the great fissure of Mt. Apo. The Magani have to take great care to prevent their patrons from inciting too much strife. (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao) (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (The Soul Book) “Mandarangan” seems to mean “the scorcher” (A Structural Study of Bagobo Myths and Rites)
  • Mandebas / Kabigat – Ibaloy – Lives at the center of the earth (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Manduyapit – Manobo – Ferried souls to the Afterworld. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Mangalagar – Zambales – Goddess of Good Grace and Good Hunting. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Manggagaway – Tagalog – Agent of Sitan, responsible for disease. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Mangindusa – Tagbanuwa – Great God. (The World of the Spirits)
  • Manglubar – Zambales – God of Peaceful Living. He pacified angry hearts. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Mankukulam – Tagalog – Agent of Sitan. He emits fire beneath a house, and if it is extinguished immediately, the person who did so dies. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia – Mangkukulam)
  • Manisilat – Tagalog – Goddess of Broken Homes, and agent of Sitan, flies into a rage when she beholds a happy home. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Mapulon – Tagalog – God of Seasons. Husband of Ikapati, Father of Anagolay. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Maria Cacao – Cebu – She dwells in Mount Lantoy, Argao, Cebu where she has cacao trees, a plantation outside her cave. After harvest, rain comes that wash down the mountain, enabling her to float down to the towns below in her golden ship to sell her products. (Wikipedia)
  • Maria Makiling – According to Northern Luzon legend, was the child of Anianihan and Caburayan (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Maria Sinukuan – Pampanga – She was the resident and protector of Mount Arayat located in Arayat, Pampanga. (Wikipedia)
  • Masiken – Ibaloy – God of the Rivers and Springs. (A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Masiken – Igorot – Guardian of the Underworld. All his followers have tails. (The Soul Book)
  • Maudi / Mauchi – Ibaloy – God of Agriculture – or, to others, God of the Lowly. Owns a rice dipper that can perform miracles. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Mayari – Tagalog – Goddess of the Moon. Daughter of Bathala and a human woman who died during childbirth. Exceedingly beautiful. Sister of Tala and Hanan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Mebuyan / Moibulan – Bagobo – Goddess of the Underworld. (NCCA) Daughter of Tuglay and Tuglibong. Sister of Lumawig, she refused to ascend to heaven with him. Instead, she drilled into the earth with her mortar, while tossing rice into it to symbolize that from then on, people would die and descend to her in Gimokudan rather than ascend to heaven. When she shakes a lemon tree someone on earth dies, an old person if the fruit that falls is ripe, a young person if the fruit is green. Mebuyan is ugly, her whole body covered with nipples, but she uses these to care for the dead babies. (A Structural Study of Bagobo Myths and Rites)
  • Melu – Bilaan – The Supreme Being and creator. He is assisted by Fiu Weh (the good spirit) and Tasu Weh (the evil spirit). (Wikipedia) Melu was a deity with gold teeth obsessed with cleanliness, so much so that he scrubbed himself white. He uses this dead skin sloughed from his body to create humanity. (The Soul Book) (Filipinana.net)
  • Mengos-oschong / Kabuniyan / Egma-on-an – Ibaloy – Creator of the universe. (NCCA) (Benguet Culture)
  • Minaden – Tiruray – The goddess who creates of the world, she had a brother named Tulus, also called Meketefu and Sualla. (Wikipedia)
  • Mingan – Pampanga – Goddess, mate of the god Suku. (The Soul Book)
  • Monlolot – Ifugao – The Winder of Thread on the Spindle, one of the twenty-three different deities preside over the art of weaving. (Wikipedia)
  • Muhen – T’boli – A bird who is one of the most influential figures in the Tboli pantheon who is considered the god of fate, whose song when heard is thought to presage misfortune. Any undertaking is immediately abandoned or postponed when one hears the Muhen sing. (Wikipedia)
  • Munsad Buralakaw - Bisayan -  God of Politics and the affairs of men. (Wikipedia)

N

  • Nagined, Arapayan, and Makbarubak – Bisayan – Three separate entities apparently, who could be appealed to when concocting a poisonous oil. (Wikipedia)
  • Nanolay – Gaddang – Both creator of all things and a culture hero. In the latter role, he is a beneficent deity. Nanolay is described in myth as a fully benevolent deity, never inflicting pain or punishment on the people. He is responsible for the origin and development of the world. (Wikipedia)
  • Ngilin – Ifugao – One of the Gods of Animal Fertility (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)

O

  • Obban – Bontok and Kankana-ey – Goddess of Reproduction. Daughter of Lumauwig and Bugan. Sister of Bangan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Oden – Ilongot – God of Rain (or its personification).  (Wikipedia)
  • Ofag – Gaddang – Cousin of Nanolay. (Wikipedia)
  • Ogassi – Manuvu – The Bad God, wove old abaca fibers and white threads into the first humans, so that they would be mortal and age. (Treasury of Stories)
  • Ognaling – Bukidnon – God of the South Wind. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia – Ongli)
  • Onos – Bicol – Lord of the Floodwaters and Thunderstorms (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Ovug – Benguet – Demigod, divided in two and then resurrected as a pair. Origin of thunder and lightning.

P

  • Paglimusan – Batak – Spirit of the Small Stones. (Wikipedia)
  • Pahulangkug – Sulod/Panay – God of Seasons. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Paiburong – Sulod/Panay – Most powerful God of the Pagtun-an. Husband of Bulawanun. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Pamahandi – Bukidnon – Protector of Carabaos and Horses. (The Soul Book)
  • Pamulak Manobo / Eugpamolak Manobo/ Manama / Kalayágan- Bagobo – Creator of all things, lived in the highest realm of the sky. Known as “The Plant Person”. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) “The first and greatest of the spirits, and the creator of all that is. His home is in the sky from whence he can observe the doings of men. Gifts for him should be white, and should be placed above and in the center of offerings intended for other spirits. He may be addressed by the mabalian, the datu, and wise old men.” (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao)
  • Panayagan – Bagobo – Patron God of Brass Casters. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Pandaki – Bisayan – Rescued the deserving to grant them a more pleasant fate. (Wikipedia)
  • Paneng-an – Kankana-ey – Deity of kindasan-stones. One of the seven secondary gods. (Gold from the gods : traditional small-scale miners in the Philippines / by Evelyn J. Caballero.)
  • Panlinugun – Sulod/Panay – God of Earthquakes, highest ranking deity in the Idadalmunon. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Paros – Bicol – The Wind, son of Tubigan, husband of Dagat (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Pati – Ibaloy/Kankana-ey – Similar powers to Lumawig. Also God of Trade, God of Hunters, God of Animals. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Pawi – Agta – God of the Forest. (Wikipedia)
  • Pe-ey – Ibaloy – Goddess of Wine. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Pilay – Isneg – Spirit of Rice. Rice pudding is offered to Pilay, the spirit of the rice, who resides on the paga, a shelf above the Isneg hearth. This is the pisi, the ritual offering of food to the spirits. The old woman who performs this utters the following prayer: “Ne uwamo ilay ta ubatbattugammo ya an-ana-a, umaammo ka mabtugda peyan” (Here, this is yours, Pilay, so that you feed my children fully, and make sure that they are always satisfied). Another ritual is performed right in the fields where the harvest is going on. The amulets inapugan, takkag (a kind of fern), and herbs are tied to a stalk of palay, which later will be placed in the granary before the other palay. Again, these are reserved for Pilay. In case a new granary is built, and the contents of the old granary transferred, the spirit’s special share is also transferred to the new place. It is never consumed. (Wikipedia)
  • Puwok – Ifugao – Controls the dread typhoons. (Wikipedia)

R

  • Revenador – Northern Luzon – God of Thunder and Lightning (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Ribung Linti – Sulod/Panay – God of Lightning and Thunderstorms. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)

S

  • Saguday – Northern Luzon – God of the Wind (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Salibubu – Kankana-ey – Deity of the Seven Stars. One of the seven secondary gods. (Gold from the gods : traditional small-scale miners in the Philippines / by Evelyn J. Caballero.)
  • Sangasang – Kalinga – The Pestilent (The World of the Spirits)
  • Santonilyo - Bisayan – God of Graces. (Wikipedia)
  • Saraganka Bagyo - Bisayan – God of Storms. (Wikipedia)
  • Saragnayan - Bisayan – God of Darkness, but only a minor deity, assistant to Sumpoy and Magyan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Sarangan Kabayo or Sarangan-sa-bagtiw - Panay – God of the Storm (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions) (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Sedsed - Agta – God of the Sea. (Wikipedia)
  • Sfedat - T’boli – The second son of Kadaw La Sambad, married to the second daughter, Bong Libun. This marriage produces no progeny, leading to Sfedat’s depression. One day, he asks his wife to kill him. His corpse becomes the land from which sprout all kinds of plants and trees. (Wikipedia)
  • Sidapa - Bisayan – Goddess of Death, co-ruler of Kamariitan with Makapatan, her husband. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Siginarugan - Bisayan – God of the Underworld. (Wikipedia)
  • Sildado - Isneg – Resembles a horse, and kills children who play noisily outside the house. (Wikipedia)
  • Silit - Kalinga – The Thunderer (The World of the Spirits)
  • Sirinan Isneg - The river spirit. (Wikipedia)
  • Sisiburanen - Bisayan – God of the Kanitu-nituhan who treated good and bad souls equally. Assisted by the giants Simuran and Siguinarugan. If no sacrifices/tribute were offered on behalf of a soul, the soul would be kept as slaves, then fed to the giants. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (note that Wikipedia lists Simuran and Siguinarugan as “gods”)
  • Sitan - Ruler of Kasanaan, Village of Grief and Affliction. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Sugudun or Sugujun - Manobo – God of Hunters and Trappers. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (A Survey of the Material and Sociological Culture of the Manobo of Eastern Mindanao).
  • Suklang-malayon - Goddess and Guardian of Happy Homes (Outline of Philippine Mythology) [seems to be the same deity referred to below, except for the gender difference] (Note that Wikipedia lists her as the “Goddess of Homeliness” which is, er, an entirely different thing.)
  • Suklang Malayon - Panay – God of the Happy Home (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Sulingbunganin – Batak – Spirit of the Big Rocks. (Wikipedia)
  • Sumalongson – Bisayan – God of the Rivers and the Sea. (Wikipedia)
  • Sumiklang Butawan – Panay-  a “Goddess of Gold”… unsure if this is her domain or appearance (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Sumpoy – Bisayan – God of the underworld, Kasakitan. Brother of Makaptan and Magyan. Takes the souls of the dead to Kanitu-nituhan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia)
  • Suyan – Ibaloy – One of the Gods of animals and plants. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)

T

  • Tala – Tagalog – Goddess of the Stars. Daughter of Bathala and a human woman who died during childbirth. Sister of Mayari and Hanan. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagabusau – Bukidnon – an uncontrollable god, with red eyes and red garments, who can enter a mortal warrior’s body and make him fight fiercely to avenge a wrong–but who can also drive him to insanity with and incessant demand for blood (pigs, fowls… humans). (The Soul Book)
  • Tagabayau – Goddess of Lust and Adultery. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) Also incites incest. (The Manobos of Mindanao) (Wikipedia)
  • Tagaloambung – Bukidnon – God of the East Wind. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) (Wikipedia – Tagolambong)
  • Tagamaling – Bagobo – a God with a dual personality, violent during one season and benevolent during another. (Apparently not the same as the Tagamaling creature from “The Story of Duling and Tagamaling” although, strangely enough, that creature too has a dual nature). (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagamaling - Mandaya – Goddess of Art. (Dagmay Legends)
  • Tagamaling - Manobo – Goddess of Crops (other than rice). (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagbanua - Manobo – God of Rain and ruler of the forest gods. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagbibi - Mindanao – Diwata protector of children of the mountain tribes. (The Soul Book)
  • Tagbusan - Manobo – Most powerful deity, ruled over the destinies of both gods and men. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) God of War of the Manobos. (The Inhabitants of the Philippines.)
  • Tagma-sa-dagat - Subanun – Lord of the Sea. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagma-sa-langit - Subanun – God and Protector of the Sick. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagma-sa-manguabungud - Subanun – Lord of the Woods. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagma-sa-uba - Subanun – Lord of the Rivers. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagma-sa-yuta - Subanun – Lord of the Earth. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tagumbanwa – Bukidnon – Guardian of the Fields, agent of Magbabaya. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Taphagan – Manobo – Goddess of Harvest, guardian of the rice while it’s in the granary. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tarabumo – Bagobo – God of rice? Jocano describes the deity as one “for whom the rice ceremony was held.” (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Taragomi – Bagobo – Guardian of the crops who “owns all food”. It is for him that the shrine known as parobanian is erected in the center of the rice field. (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao) (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tao-sa-sulup – Bukidnon – God of Material Goods. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tdolok – T’boli – God of Death. (Wikipedia)
  • Teme Lus – T’boli – God of Wild Beasts. (Wikipedia)
  • Tengnan – Ibaloy – Goddess of Maidservants. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Tigbalog – Agta – One of the four manifestations of the “great creator” who rules the world. Tigbalog is the source of life and action. (Wikipedia)
  • Tigbas – God of Good Government, the most respected of the minor deities. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tiguianes – Gianges – Creator of the world. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Todlay – Gianges – God of Love. Husband of Todlibun. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Todlibun – Gianges – Goddess of Marriage. Wife of Todlay. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tolus Ka Balakat – Bagobo – “dweller in the balakat”. (A balakat is a hanger in which offerings are placed.) A male spirit who loves the blood, but not the flesh of human beings, and one of the three for whom the yearly sacrifice is made. (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao) (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tolus Ka Gomanan – Bagobo – Patron of smiths. (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao)
  • Tolus Ka Towangan – Bagobo – Patron of workers in brass and copper. (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao)
  • Tigyama – Bagobo – Known as “The Protector”. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Tubigan – Bicol – Ruler of the Waters (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Tuglay / Toglái - Bagobo – The first man (but not a mortal), husband of Tuglibong. (A Structural Study of Bagobo Myths and Rites) By some people Toglái is believed to be one of the judges over the shades of the dead, while in Bansalan he is identified with Eugpamolak Manobo.” Toglái is also called Si Niladan or Maniládan.Toglái and Toglibonare the first man and woman to live on the earth. They gave to the people their language and customs. After their death they became spirits, and are now responsible for all marriages and births.  (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao)
  • Tuglibong / Toglibon- Bagobo – The first woman (but not a mortal, not based on the stories), wife of Tuglay. They instituted the Bagobo way of life. She is the one who made the sun and the sky rise high above the earth, when she scolded them for interfering with her pounding of the rice. (A Structural Study of Bagobo Myths and Rites)Toglái and Toglibonare the first man and woman to live on the earth. They gave to the people their language and customs. After their death they became spirits, and are now responsible for all marriages and births.  (The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao)
  • Tulus – Tiruray – Chief of all good spirits that bestow gifts and favors upon human beings. He goes around with a retinue of messengers called telaki. Tulus is said to have rectified some errors in the first creation of the world and of human beings. (Wikipedia)
  • Tumuwak – Kankana-ey – One of the seven secondary gods. (Gold from the gods : traditional small-scale miners in the Philippines / by Evelyn J. Caballero.)
  • Tungkung Langit(of Ibabawnon) – Sulod/Panay – first God, and most powerful male God. Resided in the Ibabawnon. (Outline of Philippine Mythology) The raindrops are his tears as he weeps for his lost wife, Alunsina (The Warrior Dance) (Wikipedia)
  • Tungkung Langit (of Idadalmunon) – Sulod/Panay – not the same deity as the first God. He is the brother of Panlinugun, and supports the world from beneath it.

U

  • Ub-bang – Ibaloy – A Goddess of Pigs. (A Glimpse of Benguet) One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA)
  • Ulilang Kaluluwa – Tagalog – Serpent God present in some creation myths that was killed by Bathala after an ensuing rivalry. (Wikipedia)
  • Umbumabakal – Ifugao – One of the Gods of Animal Fertility (Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions)
  • Umouiui – Manobo – God of Clouds. (Outline of Philippine Mythology)
  • Upa Kuyaw – Palawan – Grandfather Thunder. (Wikipedia)

V

  • Virgen Del Monte / Diwata ng Kagubatan – Palawan – Also known as Virgen Del Monte, she was worshiped by the ancient Cuyunon of Cuyo Island, Palawan. She is honored in a celebrated feast, periodically held atop of Mount Caimana in the mentioned island. When most of the inhabitants were converted to Christianity during the Spanish Era, about 2/3 of the converted Cuyunon are still celebrating her feast that upset the Spanish authorities. The situation led the Spanish authorities to intensify their evangelization and governance efforts. (Wikipedia)

W

Y

  • Yapeng – Ibaloy – One of the 24 gods beneath Mengos-oschong. (NCCA) (A Glimpse of Benguet)
  • Yogyou and Alyog – Ifugao – Cause the earth to quake. They dwell in the underworld. (Wikipedia)

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Rocket Kapre is an imprint of Eight Ray Sun Publishing Inc. (a new Philippine-based publisher), dedicated to bringing the very best of Philippine Speculative Fiction in English to a worldwide audience by means of digital distribution. More info can be found at our About section at the top of the page.

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