The Myth List

Posted by Paolo Chikiamco On April - 22 - 2010

THE MYTH LIST

~ Being an Incomplete Compendium of Magical Myths, Legends and Old Tales from the Philippines ~

Note: This is a list I’ve generated as a companion to–and aid for–the Alternative Alamat anthology (which closes for submissions on 30 August 2010). It does not claim to be a comprehensive list, nor is it aimed at distinguishing between folk tales, legends, fables, myths, epics, romances or what not–I’m going to collectively refer to these as Myths and Legends, for the sake of simplicity.

What I wanted to do was create something of an index of all the myths and legends that had elements of magic and the fantastic, which I’d come across in my research, both online and off. Some caveats: (1) For the books/sources I haven’t read in-depth, I merely listed the stories found in their tables of contents, so there may be stories in this list without magical elements that I’ve yet to remove; (2) Most of our myths and legends don’t have official titles per se, so there are probably duplicate entries here – then again, since they were passed down through oral tradition, many myths and legends have different versions with slight variations, so it’s also possible that different sources will have different versions of the same story.

The list is obviously still a work in progress, and it will likely always be a work in progress. I’ll be regularly adding entries, as well as key-words to further flesh out entries, but I figured that even in this rough form the list may be of service to writers and others interested in the Philippine mythic heritage. I sincerely hope it helps.

If you find any other sources, please feel free to leave a comment on the page, and I’ll keep the comment on the list until I’ve integrated the information in the list.

BOOKS

The Epics (UP Philippine Folk Literature Series)

  • Biag ni Lam-ang
    • (Found an English PDF on Pantas, a seemingly inactive site.) The tale takes us from Lam-ang’s birth, to his quest for vengeance against his Father’s killers, to his courtship of Ines Cannoyan, then finally to his death (in the belly of the giant fish berkakang) and resurrection (at the… hands(?) of his magical pet rooster and dog).
  • Hudhud hi Aliguyon (Ifugao)
    • The life of Aliguyon, dealing with his eight year war against Pumbakhayon, which results in the two adversaries gaining respect for each other, until at last peace is made between the two peoples.
  • The Kalinga Ullalim
    • The ullalims in the book (ullalim is a general term for ballads that “eulogize bravery”) deal with the Banna-Dulliyaw Cycle of Southern Kalinga. The first deals with how Banna is born (through the intercession of a piece of betel nut-his mother eats a slice which his father owned and magically conceives) and rescues his father. The second ullalim is the tale of the ordeals Banna has to undergo (several headhunting expeditions, village annihilations, giant exterminations – the typical mythical courtship) in order to win the hand of Laggunawa, who had been promised to Dungdungan.
  • Lumalindaw
    • The story of Lumalindaw, hero of the Ga’dang, wielder of a magic bolo and player of a magical musical instrument called the ayoding. He also had pet birds and a monkey. His tale  involves him winning the hand/heart of one woman after another (including one sirena), and siring children with each (and every time he had a son, he named him Yadan).
  • The Ibalon (Bicol)
    • This is a fragment of a longer manuscript, where wise man (though, see the next bullet point) Kadugnung narrates the history of Bicol to a talking bird. He speaks of the exploits of Baltog, the first man to arrive, and of Handiong, who cleared the land of the fantastic beasts who roamed it (winged sharks, beasts with one eye and three throats, etc.)  Kadugnung tells of the inventions of Handiong’s people, and the rise of the young warrior Bantong, who slays the Rabot.
    • Some notes/annotations to a summary of the Ibalon used to be on the site of a Bicol-centric mailing list. The site has since been taken down, but you can see it using the Wayback Machine here.
  • The Epic of Labaw Donggon
    • Part of the Hinilawod. There also seems to be a PDF summary of the Hinilawod, in English on Pantas. (Mention is made in the book of the Epic of Humadapnon)
  • Kudaman
    • One of the 63 epics (tultul) of Palawan. The primary hero is Kudaman, but there are a lot of characters, and while the plot again involves the hero accumulating wives, the interrelation of the characters (and a bit of wife-swapping) make it difficult to summarize. One interesting thing here is that most of the wives aren’t given names per se, but instead are referred to with titles such as “Lady of the Wild Green Pigeon and Lady of the Ginuu Tree. An important male character is also referred to as The Young Man of the Clouds.
    • I’d also like to note that, while it is true that part of Kudaman’s charm with the ladies was due to the fact that he rode around on his pet Linggisan, the Chocobo Purple Heron, I wish that the summary didn’t use phrases like “his former wife expresses renewed yearning for him and his bird” or “…who is gripped with admiration for his magnificent bird” and of course “…makes it clear to the other women that she has no desire to win the hero away from them, and that she has come with him only because she loves his bird.” I can’t be the only one who finds this phrasing… distracting @_@
  • The Epic of the Buhong Sky (Manuvu)
    • One of the songs about the Manuvu hero, Tuwaang, this one telling how he helps a maiden from the Skyworldescape from the Young Man of Pangumanon, and then leads his people to Katuusan, “the land without death.”
    • One element I found very interesting is the term “patung”, which refers to legendary objects endowed with the power to inflict great harm. Both Tuwaang and the Young Man make use of patung, using verbal commands to trigger their powers, which put me in mind of Bleach and its myriad zanpaktou.
  • Tuwaang Attends a Wedding (Manuvu)
    • Another song about the exploits of Tuwaang, this time concerning the trouble Tuwaang brings when he attends a wedding feast, and inadvertently (I think) steals the attention and affection of the bride-to-be. This is yet another story where an autunomously moving betel (in this case, a betel box) plays a key role.
  • Agyu: The Ilianon Epic of Mindanao (Manobo)
    • This popular epic tells the story of seven incidents in  the life of the hero, Agyu, and his youngest son, the boy-hero Tanagyaw.
  • Ulahingan
  • Agyu: The Capture of Nalandangan
  • Matabagka Searches for the Deity of the Wind
  • Olaging: The Battle of Nalandangan
  • Tulalang Slays the Dragon
  • Radia Indarapatra
  • Darangan (or Darangen?) – the story here is “How Bantugan Died Below the Mountain by the Sea”
  • The Story of Bantugan (not sure if this is the same Bantugan – sotry takes place during the Spanish era)
  • Maharadia Lawana
  • The Guman of Dumalinao
  • The Kingdom of Keboklagan
  • The Tale of Sandayo
  • Tudbulul

Philippine Metrical Romances (Anthology of ASEAN Literature)

  • Bernardo Carpio
  • Juan Teñoso
  • Ibong Adarna
  • Abdullah and Putli Isara
  • Florante and Laura

The Myths (UP Philippine Folk Literature Series)

The Gods: Their Activities and Relationships

  • Asuang Steals Fire from Gugurang
  • The Quarrel of the Volcanoes (Bikol)
  • The Gods and Goddesses (Iloko)
  • Why There is Tide During Full Moon (Ibanag)
  • The Conversion of Amambar
  • The Bontoc Legend of Lumawig (Bontoc)
  • Chacha’ and Ked-yem (Bontoc Igorot)
  • The Lake of the Stars (Talubin, Bontoc)
  • The Maiden Star (Bontoc Igorot)
  • Galidu: The Virgin Birth (Ifugao)
  • The Story of Bugan and Kinggauan: or the Marriage of a Goddess with a Man (Ifugao)
  • Aponibolinayen and the Sun (Tinguian)
  • Gomayen’s Three Daughters (Tinguian)
  • The Story of Gaygayoma Who Lives Up Above (Tinguian)
  • Kabunian and Lumawig (Igorot)
  • The Story of the Unfinished Bridge (Southern Kalinga)
  • A Tale of the Timungan (Kankanay)
  • The Bukidnon Ascension to Heaven (Bukidnon)
  • The Second Creation (Tiruray)

Cosmogony and Cosmology

  • Creation of the Universe/Earth
    • The Creation Story (Tagalog)
    • Formation of the World (Pampango)
    • The Creation of the World (Bikol)
    • On the Origins of Earth and of Man (Bikol)
    • The Giant that Supports the World (Bikol)
    • The Adam and Eve of the Ilocanos (Iloko)
    • The Origin of the World (Igorot)
    • Creation and Peopling of the Earth (Nabaloi)
    • The Legend of Malway and Dalidali (Mangyan)
    • The Story of Creation (Visayan)
    • The Creation (Visayan)
    • The Creation of the World (Visayan)
    • Legend of the Creation of the World (Mangyans and the Negritos)
    • The Sulod Myth of Creation
    • How the World was Created (Panayan)
    • Bila-an Genesis
    • The Creation of the Universe (Bukidnon)
    • Origin of This World (Maranao)
    • The Creation of this World (Manobo, Agusan Valley)
    • Cosmogony (Bagobo)
    • In the Beginning (Manuvu)
    • The Creation (Mansaka)
    • The T’boli Creation Myth
    • Samal Genesis
    • The Creation of the Earth and the First People (Subanon)
  • Why the Sky is High
    • Tagalog (and another Myth for why the Sky is curved)
    • Iloko
    • Kalinga
    • Hiligaynon
    • Tiruray
    • Moro
    • Manobo
    • Blaan
    • Subano
    • Bagobo
    • Manuvu
    • The Sky and Its Contents (Isneg)
    • When the Sky was Low (Mamanwa)
    • In the Days of Mona (Bagobo)
  • The Sun, the Moon and the Stars
    • Why the Sun Shines More Brightly than the Moon (Tagalog)
    • The Origin of the Stars (Tagalog)
    • The Big Dipper in the Sky (Tagalog)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Pampango)
    • On Light and Darkness and Why the Sun is Brighter than the Moon (Bikol)
    • The Origin o f the Sun, Moon, and the Stars (Iloko)
    • The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars (Pangasinan)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Tinguian)
    • Sun and Moon Quarrel (Ifugao)
    • The Moon and the Sun (Isneg)
    • Why the Moon is Not as Bright as the Sun (Nabaloi)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Visayan)
    • How the Moon and the Stars Came to be (Bukidnon)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Bagobo)
    • The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars (Moro-Isolan)
    • The Legend of the Shooting Star (Bikol)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Blaan)
    • Origin of the Stars (Blaan)
    • The Legend of the Sun, Moon, and Stars (Blaan)
    • The Origin of the Stars and the Explanation of Sunset and Sunrise (Manobo)
    • Origin of the Heavenly Bodies (Manobo)
    • The Man in the Moon (Manobo)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Manuvu)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Maranao)
    • The Origin of the Stars (Mandaya)
    • The Sun and the Moon (Mandaya)
    • Why the Sun and the Moon are Separated (Tiruray)
    • The Origin of the Sun and the Moon (T’boli)
    • The Origin of the Evening and Morning Star (Sulu)

Topography

  • Origin of Water Features:  Rivers, Lakes, Waterfalls
    • Legend of Mag-Asawang Tubig (Tagalog)
    • The Origin of the Pampanga River (Tagalog-Bulacan)
    • The Legend of the Mangat River (Gaddang)
    • The Legend of the Rio Grande in Cotabato (Cotabato)
    • Legend of Libungan River (Manobo)
    • The Legend of Sibul Springs (Tagalog)
    • The Hot Springs at Tiwi (Bicol)
    • The Salinas Salt Springs (Nueva Vizcaya)
    • The Origin of the Spring at Mabinay (Cebuano)
    • The Legend of Sampaloc Lake (Tagalog)
    • The Enchanted Lake of Buhi (Bikol)
    • The Origin of Naujuan Lake (Mindoro)
    • The Tale of a Philippine Gomorrah (Ilocano)
    • The Legend of Ambuaya Lake (Ifugao)
    • The Legend of Lake Danum
    • The Legend of Lake Pinamaloy
    • How the Angels Built Lake Lanao (Maranao)
    • The Hiulugan Taktak (Tagalog)
    • The Origin of the Bridal Veil Falls
    • The Story of Mambucal (Hiligaynon)
    • The Aurora Blanca Falls (Samar)
    • The Legend of Maria Cristina Falls (Maranao)
  • Origin of Land Features: Mountains, Volcanoes, Islands
    • The Legend of Makulot Mountain (Tagalog)
    • The Origin of Taal Volcano (Tagalog-Batangas)
    • How Taal Volcano Came Into Existence (Tagalog-Bulacan)
    • The Legend of Mount Arayat (Pampanga)
    • The Legend of Mount Mayon (Bikol)
    • Nahaponan (Bikol)
    • The Legend of Tirad Pass (Iloko)
    • The Gold Tree or the Origin of the Mines of Benguet (Igorot)
    • Origin of the Mountains (Ifugao)
    • The Crystal Cave (Igorot)
    • The Charms of Mount Iraya (Ivatan)
    • The Legend of Kanlaon (Negros)
    • The Fury of Maria Malindig (Marinduque)
    • The Legend of Hari sa Boqued (Visayan)
    • Zamboanga’s Pulong Bato: A Mountain and a Legend
    • The Legend of the Diwata Mountains
    • A Legend of Mt. Apo (Bagobo)
    • The Two Mountains (Tausug)
    • The Legend of Buntud Tulan (Blaan)
  • Origin of Islands
    • Kolakog (Catanduanes)
    • Legend of Hundred Islands (Pangasinan)
    • Origin of Bohol Island
    • The Legend of the Siete Pecados
    • The Legend of Guimaras
    • Legend of Samar and Leyte
    • Islas de Giigantes
    • How the Islands of Zapatos, Pan de Azucar, Paragua, Gigantes, and Siete Pecados originated
    • The Legend of Apo Island
    • The Legend of Bongo Island (Maguindanao)
    • The Islets of Lake Lanao
    • The Legend of Two Mountains (Jama Mapun)

World Calamities: The Great Flood

  • The Great Food (Tinggian)
  • The Flood Story (Bontok)
  • The Origin of the Bontoc Tribe (Bontok)
  • The Ifugao Flood Myth
  • Mount Mugao: Philippine “Great Flood” Story
  • The Flood (Nabaloi)
  • The Deluge (Igorot)
  • The Flood – Angaki Tale (Igorot)
  • The Story of the Flood and the First People – an Ambaguio Legend (Igorot)
  • Flood (Southern Kalinga)
  • The Wrath of Kaptan (Bisayan)
  • The Flood Story (Bukidnon)
  • Coming of Magbabaya (Bukidnon)
  • The Flood Story (Bagobo)
  • The Bamboo Ark ( I refuse to call this “Noah’s Ark”, whatever the books says. No one is named Noah in the story!) (T’boli)
  • The Mansaka Flood Myth (Mansaka)

Establishment of Natural Order:

  • Why the Sea is Salty
  • The Origin of the Rainbow (two versions) (Tagalog and Tagalog-Tayabas)
  • Why the Rainbow is Crooked (Nabaloi)
  • The Star Girls (Igorot)
  • Origin of the Rain (Ibanag)
  • Kanlaon, the God of Destruction (Bikol)
  • The Origin of Thunder, Lighting, CLouds and Rain
  • The Origin of Thunder and Lightning (Igorot)
  • Lightning (Isneg)
  • Thunder (Isneg)
  • Origin of Thunder and Lightning (Kankanay)
  • Thunder and Lightning (Manobo)
  • The Rainbow (Manobo)
  • A Story About the Earthquake (Isneg)
  • Earthquakes (Maranao)
  • What Causes Earthquakes (Ibanag)
  • The Origin of Dewdrops (Iloko)
  • The First Clouds (Visayan)
  • The Moon and the Bacunawa (Cebuano)
  • Story of the Eclipse (Bagobo)
  • Eclipse of the Moon (Manobo)
  • Eclipses (Maranao)
  • The Origin of the Echo (Bikol)

Creation and Ordering of Human Life

  • The Creation/Origin of Man
    • The First Coconut Tree and the Creation of Man (Tagalog)
    • Adam and Eve of the Tagalog
    • The Creation of the World (Pampanga)
    • How We Became Ilongots
    • The Creation of the World and of Man (Tinguian)
    • The First Man and Woman (Bontoc)
    • The Beginning of Man (Bontoc)
    • The Creation of Man (Apayao)
    • Inamong: Kinship Assemblage (Ifugao)
    • The First Inhabitants of the Earthworld (Ifugao)
    • The Beginning of Man and the First Canyao (Igorot)
    • The Origin of Man (Kankanay)
    • The First Man and Woman (Yligueynes)
    • The Man’s Discovery of the Earth (Bisayan)
    • The Formation of the Tribes of Mankind According to a Karaya Legend
    • Origin of the First Man and First Woman (Igneines and Negritos)
    • Of the First Man and the First Woman (Negros)
    • The First People on Earth (Kinaray-a)
    • Origin of the Tagbanua
    • The Peopling of the Earth (Aklanon)
    • Origins (Bagobo)
    • In the Beginning (Bilaan)
    • The Bukidnon Origin of Man (not calling this “Adam and Eve” because this tale needs a distinct title since it is the most depressing Origin and Fall of Man stories I’ve ever read @_@)
    • Creation (Bukidnon)
    • The Origin of the Mandaya
    • The Creation of the Earth (Tiruray)
    • The Creation of Men (Tiruray)
    • The Creation of Man (T’boli)
    • The Subanun Legend of Creation
    • The First Man (Manuvu)
    • Maranaw Mythology
    • The First Man and Woman (Sulu Moro)
  • Ordering of Human Life
    • How the Male Came to be Distinguished from the Female (Blaan)
    • Origin of Homosexuality (Apparently, St. Peter once beheaded some folks, then put the heads on the wrong bodies. @_@)
    • The Story of Our Fingers (Tagalog)
    • Why the Filipinos are Flat-Nosed (Nueva Ecija)
    • The Beginning of the World and of Men
    • Death Beliefs and Practices Among the Sulod
    • Why the Dead Come Back No More (Ifugao)
    • Bañggilit of Hinagañgan and the Jars that He Brought from the Village of Souls (Ifugao)
  • Acquisition of Culture
    • How Fire Came to Man (Ilocano)
    • The Origin of Fire (Manuvu)
    • The Bringing of Fire to the Earthworld (Kiangan-Ifugao)
    • Why the Nabaloi Put Their Dead in the Asal (Death Chair)
    • The Origin of Ifugao Wood Carving
    • The Origin of Headhunting (Bontoc)
    • The Legend of Betel Nut Chewing (Maranao)
    • The Origin of Tattooing (Isneg)
    • Why the Isneg are Tattoed
    • Origin of the Sinulog Dance (Cebuano)
    • The Wise Man (Tarlac)
    • Coming of the Kabunian (Ifugao)
    • Origin of the Races
    • Creation
    • The Origin of Class and Race Among Men
    • Origin of Social Classes (Tagabili/T’boli)

Creation and Origin of Animal Life

  • Origin of Animals
    • Origin of the Bat (Nabaloi)
    • Origin of Birds ((Tagalog-Bulacan)
    • Moro Legend of the First Bird
    • The Origin of the Bird Bahao (Bikol)
    • Tilin, the Rice Bird (Igorot)
    • The Lazy Wife Who Became a Kakok
    • Origin of the Coling, the Serpent Eagle
    • The Origin of Butterflies
    • The Maguindanao Crocodile Legend
    • Origin of the Monkey and the Crocodile (Tagalog)
    • The Origin of the Duyong (Hiligaynon)
    • The Legend of the Firefly (Samar)
    • The Legend of Ito and Carpa (Bikol)
    • The Origin of the Dalag Fish (Bikol)
    • The Heron (Ilokano)
    • The Origin of the Honeybee, Cicada and the Spider
    • The Origin of the First Insects and Reptiles (Bontoc)
    • The Origin of the Locusts (Tagalog)
    • The Creation of Monkeys (Tagalog)
    • The First Monkey (Tagalog)
    • The First Monkey (Iloko)
    • The First Monkey (Maranao)
    • The Origin of the Owl (Ilocano)
    • The Origin of Snails
    • The First Shark (Palawan)
    • The Origin of the Frog
    • The Legend of Gagamba (Bikol)
    • The Origin of the Worms Hulat-Lakat (Hiligaynon)
  • Origin of Animal Characteristics
    • Why We Pinch Ants When They Bite Us (Tagalog-Batangas)
    • Why the Bat Has No Friends
    • Why Bats Steal Food
    • Birabid and Becalong
    • Why the Cock Crows at Dawn (Tagalog)
    • Why Cocks Fight Each Other
    • Why the Cicada Cries as the Sun Sets (Cotobato)
    • The Cow and the Carabao (Tagalog)
    • The Carabao and the Grass (Cebuano)
    • Why the Cow is Black (Pampango)
    • The Dove and the Crow (Sambal)
    • Noah and the Owac (Cebuano)
    • The Culeto and the Crow
    • Why the Cuttle-Fish and Squids Produce a Black Liquid
    • The Ancient Curse of an Eternal Squabble (Explaining the antagonism between Dogs and Cats and Mice)
    • The Hawk and the Coling
    • Why the Coling has a Tonsure
    • The Crow and the Lizard
    • Why Lizards Kiss the Ground (Iloko)
    • The Lost Necklace (Visayan)
    • Why the Mayas Build Their Nests in Tall Grasses
    • Why the Monkey is Wise (Tagalog)
    • Why Mosquitos Hum (Bohol)
    • Why the Turtle Carries His House on His Back
    • How the Firefly, Bat, Mosquito, Field Lizard and Light Bug Acquired Their Characteristics
    • The Spider and the Fly
    • Why Spiders Do Not Go Out to Hunt for Food
    • Why the Carabao’s Hoof is Split
    • Why the Heron is on the Carabao’s Back (Maranao)

Origin of Vegetation

  • Origin of Plants
    • The Legend of Baca (Waray)
    • Where the Banana Tree Came From
    • The Legend of Cawayan
    • The Durian Legend
    • The Legend of the Mushroom
    • The Origin of the Coconut (Tagalog)
    • The Legend of Princess Macapuno (Tagalog)
    • The Legend of the Corn (Hiligaynon)
    • The Gabi Plant (Ilocano)
    • The First Garlic
    • The First Guava (Masbate)
    • The Origin of the Orange Tree (Igorot)
    • The Living Head (Visayas version of the Origin of the Orange Tree)
    • The Origin of the Makopa (Iloko)
    • The Origin of the Pine Tree
    • The Makahiya (Tagalog)
    • The First Sqush
    • The Legend of the Poinsettia (Hiligaynon)
    • The Origin of Rice (Tagalog)
    • How the First Rice was Obtained by the People (Nabaloi)
    • The Origin of Rice (Ibaloi)
    • The Rice Myth (Bohol)
    • The First Palay, Coconut Tree, Sugarcane, Gabi and Camote (Capiz)
    • The Origin of Tobacco (Tagalog-Batangas)
    • The Origin of Tobaco (Igorot)
    • The Rose (Iloko)
    • Legend of the Dama de Noche
    • The Legend of the Camia Flower (Tagalog)
    • The Forget-Me-Not (Tagalog)
    • The Origin of the Sampaguita (Southern Leyte)
    • The Origin of the Ilang-Ilang (Pangasinan)
    • The Sunflower (Tagalog)
  • Origin of Plant Characteristics
    • Why the Dama de Noche Only Blooms at Night
    • Why the Pineapple Has Eyes (Hiligaynon)
    • The Meeting of the Plants
    • Why the Macopa is Bell-Shaped (oriental Mindoro)
    • Why the Bamboo Droops
    • Why Bamboos Sigh (Blaan)
    • How Lansones Became Edible (Tagalog)
    • How a Wife Doomed Man to Planting Rice  (Jama Mapun)
    • Why Rattan Vines are Bitter (Bisayan)
    • Why the Kasoy Seed is Outside the Fruit (Tagalog)
    • Why Sampaloc Trees are Common (Tagalog)

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A Treasury of Stories (Anvil Publishing) (Feature)

  • The Good God and the Bad God (Manuvu)
  • Aponibolinayen and the Sun (Tinggian)
  • The Choosy Maiden of the Fourth Heaven (Ifugao)
  • Kimod and the Swan Maiden (Mansaka/all over)
  • Star Wife (Tinggian)
  • The Origin of Rice (Bontoc/Kankanai)
  • How the Sky Became High (Tinggian/all over the Philippines)
  • The Flood (Ifugao)
  • The First Giant Step (Ilokano)
  • The Teacher God (Bontoc)
  • The Ascension into Heaven (Bukidnon)
  • Son of Wood (Ifugao)
  • The Six-Headed Giant of Adasen (Tinggian)
  • The Death of Bantugan (Maranao)
  • The Wrath of Malingling (Manuvu)
  • Bata Mama and Bata Bahi (Bukidnon)
  • The Sweet and Sour Sisters (Manuvu)
  • The Dangerous Swing (Ifugao)
  • Pilanduk and Bombola (Maranao)
  • Walu and His Wife’s Earplug (Manuvu)
  • The Monumental Ignorance of Juan (Tagalog)
  • The Misadventures of Juan (Tagalog)
  • The Adventures of the Monkey and the Tortoise
  • Why Mosquitos Hum in Your Ear (Bisaya)
  • The Rice Boat (Isneg)
  • Who Can Drink More Water (Ilokano)
  • The War of the Dragonflies and the Monkeys (Bikol)
  • The Rat and the Oriole (Bukidnon)
  • Why the Cow’s Skin is Loose (Tagalog)
  • Big Belly and the Bully of the Forest (Manuvu)
  • The Wonderful Orange Fruit (Bontoc)
  • The One Hundred Two Children (Maranao)

Epics and Ballads of Lam-ang’s Land and People (UST Press)

  • Biag ni Lam-ang
  • “Da Delnagen Ken Annusan” / “Allusan” (the two have slight differences) [Keywords: Annusan/Allusan, Bangan, Delnagen, courtship, fake death, magic cane, marriage]
  • Donya Senas [Keywords: Gabat, healer, ringworm, resurrection]
  • Dagdagimoyo [Keywords: monkeys, fake death]
  • Gumatan [Keywords: hunter, frog, pregnancy, bread crumbs, marriage, transformation]
  • The Good Farmer and the Greey Farmer [Keywords: monkeys, cave, treasure]
  • The Myth of the Lightnings [Keywords: Kabunian, Kay-ang, Bangan, lightning]
  • The Myth of the Harvest Rite [Keywords: Kabunian, Old Woman, sacrifice, thanksgiving]

Filipinos Writing:  Philippine Literature from the Regions (Anvil Publishing)

From the Cordillera

  • The Harvest Song of Aliguyon [Keywords:  Idao (bird of prophecy), Pumbakhayon, Hannaga, Pangaiwan, Bugan]
  • How Balitok and Bugan Obtained Children [Keywords: Crocodile, Shark, Umbumabakal, Ngilin, Ambahing, Komiwa, Gods of Animal Fertility]
  • Lumawig and Kabigat  [Keywords: Boliwan, Snake, Sibsib, Cure of wounds]
  • Chacha and Ked-yem [Keywords: Bontoc, fechen, peace pact, Kawa ( Spider)]
  • Balitok and Kabigat [Keywords: tamo, Cure of Insanity, Asal (death chair), Babakal, Bugon, club]
  • Kabukab
  • Aponitolau and Aponibolinayen
  • Kankanay Tale of the Origin of Man [Keywords: chicken, laughter]
  • The Sky and Its Contents [Keywords: punding rice, beads, fire, jar, comb]
  • Kalinga Tale of the Flood [Keywords: dog]
  • Tilin the Rice Bird [Keywords: jar, transformation]
  • Ibaloy Tale of the Origin of Fish [Keywords: loss of limbs, transformation]
  • Sogsogot [Keywords: Banog, spirit town, chicken feathers]
  • Bañggilit [Keywords: jars, dog, village of souls, time distortion, Skyworld, Inhyuwat, Inayao, Buut]
  • Dogidog [Keywords: transformation, rooster-cat]
  • The Boy Who Became a Wild Hog [Keywords: Balanga-atan, fairy, King of the Hogs, transformation]
  • The Giant and the Dwarf [Keywords: Abadugan, Kaotekan, rock, shape-shifter]
  • The Siren of Paling [Keywords: golden key, marriage] (Set in post-Hispanic era)
  • Pangudya’won [Keywords: transformation, bird]

From Northern Luzon

  • The Gods and the Goddesses [Keywords: Anianihan, Lady Makiling, Abra, Maria Makiling, Saguday, Revenador, Bulan]

From Pangasinan

  • The Origin of the Hundred Islands [Keywords: Datu Mabiskeg]

From Bicol

  • Creation Story of the Bicolanos [Keywords: Languit, Tubigan, Dagat, Paros, Daga, Aldao, Bulan, Bitoon, Maisog, skin color]
  • The Legend of the Water Hyacinth [Keywords: Takay, lightning, transformation, Kanaway, Onos, Makasimbo (capital of fairyland), love story]

From Eastern Visayas/Waray

  • Antusa, the Wife of the Agta [Keywords: leeches, courtship, forest, torture]
  • Dona Maria and Don Felipe [Keywords: twins, birthmarks, unwanted children]
  • The Legend of the Abaca

From the Western Visayas

  • Hinilawod (Wiki entry) [Keywords: Alunsina, Maiklum-sa-tuan, Maiklum-sa-bag-idan, Maiklum-sa-tubig, Kasaraysarayan-sa-sulgan, Suklang Malayon, Magdang Diri-inin, Sarangan Kabayo, Labawdongon, Humadapnon, Dumalapdap...]
  • The Peopling of the Earth (a Western Visayas Creation Story)  [Keywords: creation, Makagagahum, staff, malignos, fairies, white ape, earthquake]

From Mindanao

The Warrior Dance and Other Classic Philippine Sky Tales (Tahanan Books)

  • The Sky, the Sea, and the Bird of  Prey [Keywords: origin]
  • Why the Sun Follows the Moon
  • The Man Who Would Not Stop Eating [Keywords: Matakaw, moon, stars]
  • The Star Sisters (Legend of the First Rainbow) [Keywords: Galupi, Kayapon, marriage, fairy wings, Lumawig, rainbow]
  • The Necklace and the Comb (How the Moon and the Stars Came to Be)
  • The Unforgiving Goddess (Creation Story of Panay) [Keywords: Tungkung Langit, Alunsina, rain, origin]
  • The Twins of Sky and Earth [Keywords: Dumagid, Dugai, Ovug, Thunder, Lightning, Benguet, body-division, resurrection]
  • The Warrior Dance [Keywords: Spear, sky]

Philippine Myths, Legends and Folktales (Phoenix Publishing House)

  • How People were Created (Bagobo)
  • Why the Sun is Brighter than the Moon
  • The Coleto and the Crow [Keywords: origin, color]
  • The Legend of Mount Kanlaon
  • Why Dogs Bare Their Teeth [Keywords: origin]
  • The Origin of Bananas
  • The Two Woodcutters and the Elf
  • The Wee Folk (story about the kiba-an)
  • The Frog Princess (where the spell is broken not by a kiss, but by the frog being crushed under foot. Uhm… @_@)
  • The Bridge of the Angels [Keywords: rainbow]
  • Two Boys and a Tianak (where Tianaks are portrayed as something other than evil man-eaters)
  • The Elf’s Gifts (another story about the kiba-an) [keywords: gifts, marriage, punishment, kiba-an]
  • The Tale of Pakungo-adipen
  • The Man and the Lizard [keywords: Bagobo, Mona]
  • The Monkeys and the Butterflies
  • The Monkey Prince [keywords: Bicol, witch, curse, transformation, marriage]
  • Tale of the Kind-hearted Manobo (Best quote: “Whoever can restore [the Princess] to life can marry her!”) [keywords: rat, snake, gifts, resurrection, marriage]
  • The Monkey Who Became a Servant [keywords: witch, Masoy, trickster, marriage]
  • Death and Datu Omar
  • The Man Who Reached the Skyworld (Bañggilit)
  • The Buried Treasure [Keywords: jar, gold, secrets]
  • The Tale of Magbaloto (has a similar structure to Kimod and the Swan Maiden) [Keywords: Magbaloto, bathing, fairy wings, Makaya, North Wind, East Wind, South Wind, West Wind, eagle, King of the Ants, King of the Rats, trials, King of the Wild Pigs, marriage]
  • Tale of the 101 Brothers and Their Sister [Keywords: fern leaves, super powered siblings, Rajah Bagaram, Maongagen, Barakat, Pokakandak, Geographer, Pamamana, Putri Intantiaya, Ingud a Bulawan (Land of Gold), Towan-Putri Malano-tiaya, Ta-awi, Parirmar, Pangongoyag sa Miatay, Banjarmasir, Mabagur, war, poison, resurrection]
  • The Tale of Sog-Sogot (Sogsogot)
  • The Enchanted Snail [Keywords: trickster, transformation, marriage]
  • The Man Who Tried to Cheat Death
  • The Tale of (Prince) Diwata [Keywords: Inigambar, Garuda, transformation, trickster, marriage]

Tales of Long Ago (Phoenix Publishing House)

Origin Myths

  • How the Earth was Created
  • Why the Sky Rose High
  • How the Sun and the Moon Came to Be
  • Why the Sea is Salty
  • The First Monkey
  • The Origin of the Owl and Other Creatures
  • Legend of the Black Cat
  • All-Head Juan
  • Why the Snail Tastes Bitter
  • How the Crocodile Learned to Hunt
  • Why the Egret Rides on the Carabao

Animal Tales

  • The Tortoise and the Ban-og
  • The Crocodile and the Monitor Lizard
  • The Monkey, the Tortoise, and the Banana Tree
  • The Guest Who Broke His Promise
  • The Tortoise and the Lizard
  • Bobowaya and Amomo-ay
  • The Lizard’s Treachery
  • The Monkey and the Tortoise

Tales to Laugh Over

  • The Foolish Fishermen and the Carabao
  • The Tale of Padol
  • How Monsai Enslaved His Master
  • The Foolish Farmer and His Carabao
  • The Hunter and His Wife
  • The Ginger of Aunt Guinampang

Adventure Tales

  • The Two Neighbors and the Crocodile
  • Tale of the White Squash
  • Datu Omar and the Elf
  • The Woodcutter and the Python
  • Mangosparos and the Monkeys
  • Six Brothers and a Cat
  • The Boy and the Crocodile
  • The Magic Ring
  • Tale of Two Women

Hero Tales

  • The Magic Tree
  • The Love of Raja Mañgandiri
  • The Bird that Stole the Sultan’s Bird

The Sacred Tree of Sagada (George Deseder Seles) (Filipiniana GR325.S23 2008)

  • Maknongan’s Creation (Ifugao)
  • Kabunian, the Creator’s Gift of Rice
  • The Gift of Fire from the Philippine Prometheus
  • How a Bridal Veil Became a Falls
  • Pinang and the Origin of the Many-Eyed Pineapple
  • Sampaguitas for Rasusanae
  • The Origin of the Hornbill
  • The Battle of the Monkeys and the Butterflies
  • The Sacred Tree of Sagada
  • The Frog Princess

Outline of Philippine Mythology (F. Landa Jocano) [Ateneo de Manila Library: Filipiniana GR325. J62]

  • Creation Stories:
    • The Story of Maykapal (Luzon)
    • The Kite, the Sea and the Sky (Luzon)
    • Tungkung Langit and Alunsina (Visayas)
    • The Land Breeze and the Sea Breeze (Visayas)
    • Descent of Manaul (Visayas)
    • Pamulak Manobo – creation of the universe (Bagobo)
    • Melu (Bilaan)
  • Peopling of the Earth:
    • Coming of Kabunian (Luzon)
    • Descent of Lumauwig (Luzon)
    • Kaptan and Maguayan; Lament of Pandaguan; Luplupan and Maracuyrun; Manaul and Maguayan (Visayas) (These are interconnected stories)
    • Pamulak Manobo – creation of Man (Bagobo)
    • Malikol Mis’Ra (Maranaw)
    • Tabunaway and Mamalu (Maguindanao)
  • The Great Flood:
    • The Abduction of Humitau (Tinguian)
    • Kabigat and Bugan (Ifugao)
    • Ibalon (Bikol)
    • The Wrath of Kaptan (Visayas)
    • Coming of Magbabaya (Bukidnon)
  • Wanderings of the Divinities:
    • Birth of Lumauwig (Ifugao)
    • Brothers of Inude (Ifugao)
    • Lumauwig and Mitura (Ifugao)
    • Descent of Daungen (Ifugao)
    • Aponibolinayen and Init-init (Tinguian)
    • Hari-sa-bukid (Negros)
    • The Wrath of Bingoi (Agusan)
    • Makayaga’s Nemesis (Sibugai)
  • Adventures of the Native Heroes:
    • Hudhud ni Aliguyun (Ifugao)
    • The Life of Lam-Ang
    • Heroes of Ibalon (Bicol)
    • Three Brothers of Panay; Adventures of Humadapnon (Panay)
    • The Story of Bantugan
    • Indarapatra and Sulayman (Mindanao)
    • Adventures of Tuwaang (Bagobo)
  • Legends of Places:
    • Why the Philippines has Many Islands (Ilocos)
    • Why Abra Has So Many Hills (Abra)
    • Cabriwan (Antique)
    • Legend of Hawili Falls (Aklan)
    • Bridal Falls of Baguio (Mountain Province)
    • Legend of Mount Mayon
    • Legend of the Two Mountains (Basilan and Sulu)
    • Legend of the Two Islands (Zambales)
    • The Salt Springs of Salinas (Nueva Viscaya)
    • Legend of Mount Arayat (Luzon)
    • Islas de Gigantes (Panay)
    • The Legend of Tirad Pass (Luzon)
    • Hinumbacat Daraga (Antique)
    • The Story of Yaga (Mindanao)
    • The Legend of Monada River (Masbate)
    • Guinsablayan, Olango, Bolingao, and Manibad Lakes (Aklan)
    • Capahian (Antique)
    • Sibalom, Bari and Sulong (Antique)
    • Lugutan (Antique)
    • Magcalon (Antique)
    • Da-o (Antique)
    • Legend of Anini and Nogas (Antique)
  • Legends of Plants:
    • Why the Piña Has Eyes (Iloilo)
    • The Origin of the Pine Tree (Luzon)
    • Origin of Marang (Bukidnon)
    • Origin of the Coconut (Negros)
    • Origin of the Orange (Ifugao)
    • Origin of Sampaloc (Batangas)
    • Origin of the Makupa (Ilocos)
    • Why the Mango Fruit is Shaped Like a Heart (Aklan)
    • How Rice was Discovered (Visayas)
    • The Legend of Tara-Tara (Camarines)
    • Legend of the Dapdap Tree (Antique)
    • The First Bananas (Bicol)
  • Legends of Animals:
    • Why the Baka-bakahan (Trunk Fish) have Scales and Horns
    • Legend of the Monkey (Panay)
    • Why the Dog Barks (Nueva Viscya)
    • Legend of the Locusts (Batangas)
    • Legend of the Sharks (Zambales)
    • Legend of the Sea Horse (Cavite)

Myths and Symbols Philippines (Fr. Demetrio S.J.) [Ateneo de Manila Library:  Filipiniana GR 325.D36 1990] (Haven’t finished going through this yet, and most of the names here are placeholders since the author doesn’t assign names to most of the stories.)

  • The Story of King Manaul and King Tubluck Laui
  • The Origin of Bohol (tells of a sky-woman who fell from a hole in the sky)
  • The Tale of Angngalo (originally a rat born in the bowl of the earth, of the union of earth and sky)
  • The story of Lukbang, Mengedan, and Bodek (Tagakaolo)
  • The Story of Melu (Bilaan)
  • Manobo tales involve a pillar at the center of the world, but differ as to the creator: Malindung, a god, or Dagau, a goddess
  • Eugpamulak Manobo (or Diwata) Creates the World (Bagobo)
  • Man and Woman Emerge from Bamboo
  • The Bagobo tell of how the world was once ruled by monkeys, who were displaced by man
  • The Limokon Bird (lays eggs from which merge the first man and woman)
  • Ifugao Flood Myth (Wigan and Bugan)
  • Other Flood Myths: Ata; Mandaya; Visayan (quarrel between Bathala and Dumagat)
  • How the Crow Became Black

ONLINE SOURCES

Filipiniana.Net (Site)

Stories

Papers

Panitikan.com.ph (Site)

Mga Alamat

Mga Alamat Pilipino ni Rene Alba

Papers/Analysis

Myths in Philippine Folk Literature page on SEASite (Site)

Tagalog

Ibanag

Ifugao

Iloko

Maranao

Introduction to Philippine Folklore at Philsites.net (Site)

Pantas Project Philippines (Site):

Alamat – Webmanila (Site)

  • Rainbow, the First
  • Sun, Why it Follows the Moon
  • Sea Why it is Salty
  • Fish, Why it has Scales
  • Origin of Man
  • Filipinos, Flat-nosed
  • The Origin of Corn
  • The Origin of Garlic
  • The Story of the Butterflies
  • The Story of the Monkeys

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